WoTUG - The place for concurrent processes

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  title = "\"{D}o it yourself\" shared memory instruction sets in occam",
  author= "Cole, M. I.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "1--10",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "We present an approach to the task of
     \"civilising\" distributed memory architectures,
     in which the programmer is presented with a shared memory
     computational model, augmented with application specific
     shared memory instructions. We note that this model can ease
     the dimculty of designing and justifying algorithms, and
     that occam provides a suitable medium for its distributed
  title = "{A} deadlock-free communication system for a transputer network",
  author= "Gallizzi, E. and Cannataro, M. and Spezzano, G. and Talia, Domenico",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "11--21",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "The design and an implementation overview of a communication
     system which provides deadlock-free operation in a tightly
     coupled message-passing multicomputer system is presented.
     Furthermore, routing simulation results for a 4x 10 computer
     array are described. The communication system has many
     positive characteristics including provable
     deadlock-freedom, guaranteed message arrival, and automatic
     local congestion reduction. This system has been implemented
     in Occam 2 on a network of Transputers."
  title = "{A} parallel semantic net engine and its application to data modeling",
  author= "Lee, Y. N.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "22--33",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "Although the use of Fourth Generation Languages has greatly
     increased the efficiency of the system development process,
     the validation of system specifications is still considered
     to be complicated and time-consuming. A \"Parallel
     Semantic Net Engine (PSNE)\" has been developed as part
     of a research project carried out in the Department of
     Computer Science at Exeter University to investigate into
     this area. This project was initiated by a software house,
     Softwright Systems Ltd., which has made extensive use of
     Fourth Generation Languages.The purpose of this project was
     to construct an engine which would be fast enough to
     validate a system specification in realtime, giving
     immediate feedback to the user when constraints are
     violated. The areas of knowledge representation and parallel
     processing were explored. A Parallel Semantic Net Engine was
     proposed in order to take advantage of the richness of
     semantic networks in representing complicated relationships
     and the power of transputers in speeding up the processing.
     Figure 1 shows the general model of the PSNE.The model is
     distributed over of a host PC and a network of transputers.
     On the PC side, there are the application generator,
     generated applications and a standard relational database
     which stores the application data. A front-end would be
     developed running on the PC to act as the gateway for data
     passing between the PC and the transputers."
  title = "{P}arallel-{DB}4{GL}: {A}n implementation of a self-describing object-oriented database application generator on transputer hardware",
  author= "Gray, J. P. and Poole, F.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "34--49",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "In general, this research project is concerned with the use
     of transputer based parallel hardware to improve the
     performance of database software. Specifically, the aim of
     the project is the enhancement of a database application
     generation system, Data Base 4th Generation Language
     (DB4GL), by converting the DB4GL generated database
     applications to run on transputer networks.A prototype
     Parallel-DB4GL (P-DB4GL) system has been designed and
     implemented. In P-DB4GL, the application code modules
     generated by DB4GL have been redesigned as concurrent Occam
     [InmosSSb] processes. A number of DB4GL data access code
     modules (entity handlers and schema handlers) have been
     implemented, and used to construct simple database
     applications. Additionally, simulations of DB4GL modules not
     yet implemented (for example, User Processes and Filer
     Processes) have been written, and used in the testing of
     these simple database applications.The P-DB4GL applications
     have been test run on a number of different transputer
     configurations. Results have been obtained which show
     significant performance improvements when applications are
     run on small (one to four processors) transputer networks.
     The principal benefit comes from the ability to perform
     multiple concurrent disc input/ouput, thus increasing disc
     throughput, and hence improving overall application
     performance. Development and testing of the prototype
     P-DB4GL has confirmed the feasibility of using transputer
     based parallel hardware for DB4GL applications. It has
     indicated how and where significant performance gains can be
     obtained in the full working version of P-DB4GL, currently
     under development."
  title = "{U}sing {T}ransputers to {S}imulate {O}ptoelectronic {C}omputers",
  author= "Cramb, I. and Upstill, C.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "50--59",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "In this paper we present the results of our simulation and
     study of an optoelectronic SIMD architecture on a medium
     sized transputer array (18 processors). The particular
     optoelectronic architecture we have simulated is a Binary
     Image Algebra (BIA) Processor of considerable computational
     power -processing data at rates well in excess of those
     currently achievable using electronic computers. Considering
     the inherent parallelism of such an architecture, along with
     the need for very large amounts of data processing in order
     to perform realistic simulation, the simulator was
     implemented in occam on a transputer array. The process
     model of computing adopted by occam is also most appropriate
     to the optoelectronic architecture which we have designed
     because of its modularity: we have been able to design
     process structures which have the same topology as the
     processing modules in our architecture. In the
     optoelectronic architecture, data are transmitted to a set
     of processing modules, one of which is chosen to perform a
     particular operation; the data pass through that module and
     are are transformed as they do so; in our simulator the
     processing takes place in a very similar way: data are
     transmitted from the controller to the farm; a particular
     process/module of code is called, and the data are passed
     through it, using occam channels, and are processed as they
     do so.We begin with a description of BIA itself. The core of
     the paper is a description of the logical architecture we
     have adopted; we include an account of a method for reducing
     the limiting effect of the transputer link bandwidth on the
     performance of farming computationally undemanding tasks.
     The paper is concluded with a brief description of our
     design for an optoelectronic SIMD architecture."
  title = "{A}n investigation of several parallel genetic algorithms",
  author= "Macfarlane, Donald and East, Ian R.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "60--67",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "Genetic algorithms (GAs) are important search and
     optimisation techniques with a wide range of applications.
     The demand for GAs with fast response times has led to the
     investigation of parallel implementations. Three parallel
     GAs are designed, implemented on a transputer network, and
     compared over several benchmark problems. It is believed
     that a fine-grained approach to parallel genetic algorithms
     is the most promising."
  title = "{A}n efficient global convergence detection scheme for parallel algorithms on transputer network",
  author= "Kumar, K. G. and Basu, A. and Srinivas, S. and Paulraj, A.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "68--79",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "The paper discusses a novel and efficient scheme for the
     detection of global convergence in parallel iterative
     algorithms. Convergence information is maintained as
     processes which execute concurrently with computations of
     the algorithm and exploit the asynchrony inherent in the
     progress of most executions of such algorithms towards
     global convergence. The scheme treats messages signalling
     convergence as having a lower priority as compared to those
     signalling non-convergence. It minimizes the waiting time at
     the end of iterations for convergence related
     communications. Analytical results indicate that the global
     convergence detection scheme proposed in this paper is
     faster than the methods proposed earlier [3]. The scheme is
     particularly suited for implementation on Transputer based
     parallel machines. An OCCAM implementation of the scheme on
     a torus of Transputers is described together with a method
     for experimental verification of the analytical results."
  title = "{I}mplementing {R}ecursion on a {D}ouble {R}ing {T}opology",
  author= "Jacquemin, J. L.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "80--84",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "The widespread recursion problems can become much more
     time-efficient if they are processed with the help of a
     parallel algorithm. The authors have shown that transputer
     networks are able to bring an outstanding efficiency in the
     case of a double ring topology. A special care is given to
     load balancing, performance enhancement techniques and
     optimization of interprocessor communication.The method
     presented here can be implemented on any number of
     processors by merely changing a single parameter: The number
     of processors involved."
  title = "{A} {D}istributed {L}ogic {P}rogramming {L}anguage and its {I}mplementation on {T}ransputer {N}etworks",
  author= "Cunha, Jos\`{e} A. Cardoso and Medeiros, Pedro A. Duarte and Pereira, Luis M.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "85--96",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "Currently there is a trend towards the development of
     programming tools and mechanisms for the support of
     heterogeneous multi-agent systems on paralell computer
     architectures. This paper presents a contribution to this
     area, as far as logic programming on a distributed execution
     environment is concerned. We discuss the main issues on the
     design and implementation of the logic programming language
     Delta Prolog [2] [3] [6] [7] [11], extending Prolog with
     constructs for concurrency and communication. The work
     described is one of the research components of a project on
     the development of mechanisms for parallel logic programming
     support on parallel architectures, currently running in this
     University [8]."
  title = "{CS}-{P}rolog -- {P}arallel programming in logic with transputers",
  author= "Schulze-Kremer, Steffen",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "97--110",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "This paper describes the parallel features of CS-Prolog, an
     extension of standard Prolog languages. CS-Prolog employs
     the local virtual time concept and allows parallel
     evaluation of several Prolog goals making use of a variable
     number of transputers on an IBM-AT compatible. Further,
     written in CS-Prolog a program MolSIM is presented, that can
     carry out knowledge-based simulation of molecularbiological
     regulatory processes."
  title = "{T}ransputer models for a high-performance local area network bridge",
  author= "Sarrafan, A. M. and Welch, Peter H.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "111--121",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "Bridges interconnecting Local Area Networks can experience
     heavy loads. Traditional implementations of such devices
     have typically achieved high throughput rates by
     implementing the device at low protocol levels, thus keeping
     the functionality of the device quite simple in nature. For
     bridges that are required to have a higher degree of
     intelligence and for gateways between different networking
     technologies (which must be implemented at higher protocol
     levels), the problem is to maintain high throughput rates in
     a processing intensive component This paper describes an
     expandable and parallel solution to the problem. The
     methodology is demonstrated in an occam implementation of a
     Cambridge Ring bridge. The prototype is tested on several
     different transputer configurations and the results are
     reported. To put the figures into context, performance
     figures for an equivalent sequential implementation,
     currently operational at the University of Kent, are also
  title = "{D}esign of a {H}igh {P}erformance {P}rotocol {A}nalysis system using transputers",
  author= "Kazi, Sarvajna and Hockman, Robert D.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "122--131",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "The Problem : Managing Enterprise Networks Consisting of
     LANs and WANs.PCs and workstations are the tools of choice
     for many-work-group applications. When attached to
     increasingly large and complex Local Area Networks (LANs),
     they can efficiently share their own resources and those in
     diverse distributed servers. Increasingly, enterprises with
     widely distributed locations are linking these diverse LAN
     work-groups via a variety of Wide Area Networks (WANs). The
     resulting heterogeneous networks form a geographically
     distributed LAN/WAN with a large number and diversity of
     computing and communication components. ...."
  title = "{H}ost-independent access to transputers",
  author= "Peel, Roger M. A.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "132--137",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "Most Transputer development software is designed to run on
     Transputer hardware. The most common access mechanism to
     such facilities uses a Transputer card plugged directly into
     the expansion bus of a personal computer, workstation or
     minicomputer. The problem with this scheme is that the host
     machine must pass all communications to the Transputer, and
     thus must be involved even if the communication originated
     on another computer networked to this host. In addition,
     there is a physical limit to the number of Transputer cards
     which may be accommodated and individually controlled within
     each host.In order to support large populations of users
     economically, the author has developed a Transputer-based
     Ethernet peripheral which can communicate directly with
     networked host processors, and supports multiple target
     Transputers, each running an enhanced version of the
     standard INMOS Iserver. Each target Transputer is therefore
     capable of running the Transputer Development System and the
     standalone Toolkit compilers, as well as user's application
     programs. In addition, capabilities are provided for
     reserving clusters of client Transputers for the execution
     of multi-Transputer applications."
  title = "{E}xperimental studies of conservative distributed discrete-event simulation on transputer networks",
  author= "Cal, W. and Turner, Stephen J.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "138--147",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "Computer-based discrete-event simulation has a relatively
     long history. Traditionally, it has been performed in a
     sequential manner: the event-list simulation mechanism ([1])
     is a typical example. The idea of distributed simulation was
     proposed by Chandy in 1977 and is now being developed mainly
     along two directions - the conservative approach (deadlock
     avoidance ([2]) and deadlock recovery ([3])) and the
     optimistic approach (time warp ([4])).Distributed simulation
     explores the potential parallelism inherent in most
     simulation applications. Each physical process (PP) in the
     application is simulated by a logical process (LP) in the
     simulation model. Events in the physical system are
     simulated by message transmissions between IPs. Since many
     simulation applications contain a high degree of
     parallelism, simulation seems to be a natural candidate for
     parallel processing. But, the causality constraint of the
     simulation, that is, events simulated by an LP must have a
     nondecreasing simulation time, is not easily maintained by
     distributed processing. Many strategies have been proposed:
     however, experimental studies need to be conducted in order
     to discover how much speed-up is achieved with a distributed
     simulation as compared to sequential methods. Previous
     performance studies by other researchers ([5,6]) have mainly
     been carried out on shared-memory parallel processors. In
     this paper, a set of experimental results is presented,
     designed to evaluate the effectiveness of conservative
     distributed simulation strategies on message-passing
     parallel processors such as transputers."
  title = "{A} {T}ransputer-based {W}orkstation {A}ccelerator for {O}ptimisation {A}lgorithms",
  author= "Woodhams, F. W. D. and Price, W. L.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "148--153",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "This paper discusses the design of a transputer-based
     accelerator for both combinatorial and global optimisation
     algorithms. Combinatorial optimisation has engineering
     applications in, for example, placement and routing of VLSI
     circuits. This type of problem is known to be in the
     complexity class NP-complete 1. For the solution of these
     problems some form of random search heuristic is often
     required. One such heuristic is the simulated annealing
     algorithm\^{}. This algorithm is usually too slow for the
     interactive user and is normally run on a mainframe
  title = "{O}ccam program synthesis for execution on parallel machines: {T}owards a transformational approach",
  author= "Yu, Xiaobo and Muntean, Traian",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "154--167",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "In this paper, we present a parallel program synthesis
     system which provides formal, methods and techniques for
     derivation and correct construction of implementations of
     occam programs on networks of transputers. The
     transformation rules are represented by a set of powerful
     algebraic laws of occam in order to perform the necessary
     transformation steps towards abstract forms representing
     models of execution of associated virtual machines.The
     program synthesis system can be applied to various aspects
     of parallel programming in a distributed environment, from
     the communication protocol design and correctness proof of
     implementation to parallel program construction, program
     optimisation, mapping strategies etc.Special emphasis is put
     on the transformation control strategies and guidance
     combined with information of the machine configuration, in
     order to achieve program optimisations, increasing
     parallelism granularity, altering inter-process
     communication patterns, for efficient execution on the
     physical parallelism offered by target transputer machines.
     An example of application of the transformation system to
     the distributed implementation of global synchronisations is
  title = "{A} {D}ynamic {S}witch for {T}ransputer {L}inks",
  author= "Hofstede, Jaap and Lensink, Andre",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "168--178",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "One of the goals of the Esprit project Pangloss wa"
  title = "{P}rocessor {F}arm {A}nalysis and {S}imulation for {E}mbedded {P}arallel {P}rocessing {S}ystems",
  author= "Tregidgo, R. W. S. and Downton, A. C.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "179--189",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "A brief survey of current Parallel Processing literature
     reveals a large number of highly application specific
     architectures [1] [2] [3] [4]. The arrival of the Transputer
     [5] has done little to alleviate this situation, in fact the
     only constraint on custom architectures seems to be the
     number of communication links currently supported by the
     Transputer. The lack of generality in such architectures is
     expensive and often makes future system expansion difficult.
     The objective of this paper is to show that by accepting
     some compromise on performance, general purpose
     multiprocessor systems can be analytically designed."
  title = "{A} method for monitoring occam internal channels",
  author= "d'Acierno, A. and Pietro, Giuseppe de and Villano, Umberto",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "190--197",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "In a Transputer environment, where the data exchange and the
     synchronizations between any two processes are carried out
     by means of I/O operations, the monitoring of the channels
     used for implementing the message exchange is of particular
     interest. In this paper a method is illustrated for
     monitoring the internal channels of an Occam program. This
     method introduces little CPU overhead, no additional
     communication cost, and preserves the synchronization
     behaviour of the two communicating processes. Its
     characteristics have been attained by means of a particular
     monitoring mechanism, based upon a rather unusual use of
     some Transputer machine language instructions, canonically
     used to implement guarded communications within the Occam
     ALT construct."
  title = "{T}he design of a real time three demensional vision system for object idenification",
  author= "Edwards, Janet and Sillitoe, Ian P. W.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "198--205",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "The paper describes the design and analysis of a transputer
     based application, written in Occara-2 and implemented on a
     network of transputers. The system generates volumetric
     representations of industrial objects in real time from a
     set of multiple views and forms a testbed for the
     investigation of various identification techniques to be
     used within an experimental industrial robotic workcell.The
     paper outlines the algorithm, its implementation and the
     efficacy of various design techniques used to increase the
     response of the system. It also makes recommendations for
     further work and useful tools to assist in writing efficient
     Occam code more effectively."
  title = "{C}ontrol of a servo loop for a vision system",
  author= "Stavenuiter, Tonny and Roebbers, Herman",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "206--218",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "Transputers enable the implementation of complex control
     algorithms for robot systems at high sampling rates. With
     these new algorithms the need is felt for a better
     interaction between the robot and its environment Vision is
     an attractive sensor for the establishment of this
     interaction. This paper describes the development of a
     system, in which vision is used to track the tip of a robot
  title = "{A}n application of ultrasonic signal processing in a mixed system of transputers and digital signal processors",
  author= "Allen, Alastair R. and Wang, Dalan",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "219--222",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "A system is described in which a floating-point digital
     signal processor is incorporated into a transputer array.
     The resulting combination provides a significant resource
     which is being used to process ultrasonic echoes to
     determine surface roughness."
  title = "{I}ncremental behavioral simulations on a network of transputers",
  author= "Dimond, Keith and Hassan, Samir",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "223--231",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "Simulation plays an important role in the design process for
     modern digital and analogue systems. There are many
     different types of simulators capable of representing the
     behaviour of the system at a number of different levels of
     abstraction. Because of its vital importance there is an
     ever increasing need to enhance the performance of
     simulators. Enhancements can occur in many different
     aspects. These may be in the speed of simulation, or in the
     accuracy of modelling. This paper describes a relatively new
     enhancement that of incremental operation which has the
     advantage of allowing the simulator to respond very rapidly
     to design changes in addition to providing an enhanced rate
     of simulation.The simulator which is described in this paper
     operates at the behavioural level. This allows the designer
     to specify, using suitable code segments descriptions of the
     behaviour of the functional blocks which make up the design.
     This approach may be used to model a digital system at the
     gate level, where signal values correspond to standard logic
     levels. In addition this mode of simulation has the
     attraction of being able to model very complex blocks which
     might very well have inputs and outputs which are most
     conveniently represented by complex data structures. This
     simulator is able therefore to model a complete system, some
     parts represented at this nigh-level of abstraction whilst
     other parts may be modelled at the lower levels of
     abstraction where greater detail is required."
  title = "{A} high level software and environment for transputer based systems",
  author= "West, Adrian J. and Capon, Peter C.",
  editor= "Turner, Stephen J.",
  pages = "232--242",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-12: {T}ools and {T}echniques for {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 029 4",
  year= "1990",
  month= "mar",
  abstract= "At Manchester we have a rack of Transputers that we use for
     research into parallel architectures[CGK86,AEK89]. These
     architectures are investigated by simulation, and some
     experience of this has already been gained. Currently,
     simulations are written in occam and drive the rack
     directly; a coding process that is rather slow, error prone
     and requires particular knowledge of the Manchester rack.We
     intend to provide a higher level environment that allows a
     more rapid and secure development to be achieved. As occam
     has been found to be a natural and flexible medium for
     expressing functional simulations, it has been retained in
     preference to a dedicated simulation language. The tools
     discussed in this paper are therefore applicable to occam
     programming generally, and will be used for the development
     of applications other than simulation."

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