WoTUG - The place for concurrent processes

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  title = "{TROS}: {A} {R}eal {T}ime {K}ernel for a {F}ault-{T}olerant {M}ulti-{P}rocessor {C}omputer {B}ased on {A}rgument {F}low",
  author= "Verhulst, Eric and Lauwereins, R. and Cuyvers, R. and Peperstraete, J.",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "1--13",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "The design and realisation of a fault tolerant load
     balancing real time kernel for a multi-transputer system is
     considered. The system will be able to recover from software
     as well as from hardware failures. This is made possible by
     applying the argument flow program organisation. Argument
     flow programs are a mixture of normal control flow at the
     lowest level and of data flow at the higher levels. Hence,
     load balancing can be executed automatically.In the next
     part, the architecture of the runtime kernel and the use of
     argument flow is considered."
  title = "{D}ynamicity through {O}ccam and {TDS}",
  author= "Millot, D. and Vautherin, J.",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "14--22",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "A parallel program running on a parallel machine involves a
     logical network of processes and a physical network of
     processors. When both networks are known at design time, a
     static mapping of the logical network on the physical one
     can take place. Dynamicity arises when one of the networks
     is not entirely determined before execution starts. This can
     happen for instance when the logical network involves
     dynamic creation of processes, or when the physical topology
     cannot be defined at design time (this is the case in a
     multi-user context, as the configuration a user gets is
     affected by the other users' computations, or when the
     programmer wants to develop a generic program that can be
     executed on any physical topology).When using Occam to
     design a network of processes that has to be mapped on
     transputers, things have to be decided before execution
     starts :- the network of processes should be composed of an
     explicitly bounded number of processes due to the fact that,
     unlike CSP, Occam does not allow recursion,- the topology
     of the transputer network should be known, for processes are
     explicitly mapped onto processors. One has to investigate
     the physical topology in order to write the configuration
     statements, and a change in the topology entails
     modifications in these statements. An application is
     therefore dedicated to a configuration. It would
     nevertheless be very attractive to design software that
     could run on an unidentified topology, trying to make the
     best of available processors. Such software has to realize a
     dynamic placement and therefore includes a phase supposed to
     investigate the configuration, load the different codes on
     the appropriate processors, then dynamically start their
     execution.Our aim is to develop suitable tools to write that
     kind of application. As a first step, we investigate the
     potentiality of Occam and TDS in this field."
  title = "{A} {CASE} {T}ool for {D}esigning {D}eadlock-{F}ree {OCCAM} {P}rograms",
  author= "Crowe, W. D. and Hasson, R. and Strain-Clark, P. E. D.",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "23--35",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "This paper describes a Computer Aided Software Engineering
     (CASE) tool aimed at producing correct OCCAM programs. We
     use variants of CSP and OCCAM2 notation , a strong form of
     protocols on channels and standard forms for processes in
     order to lessen the combinatorial problems which arise while
     investigating deadlock. The CASE tool is graphical in nature
     and two versions of it are currently being implemented. One
     version is written in PROLOG and runs on Mackintosh
     computers while the another is written in a mixture of
     PROLOG and C and runs on Sun workstations."
  title = "{A} {D}eadlock {D}etection {T}ool for {O}ccam",
  author= "Joosen, Wouter and Verbaeten, Pierre",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "36--54",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "A problem that occurs frequently during the development of
     parallel programs is deadlock.In the domain of transputer
     technology (and of parallel computing in general) run time
     debugging software still is a problem. This increases the
     value of verification tools based on static analysis, even
     if the functionality is sometimes limited.In this paper we
     present our approach to static analysis. The analyzer
     reduces an occam program to the relevant actions hi the
     context of this problem (communication, possibly through
     guards: PAR constructions...), and subsequently examines the
     program, reporting possible problems that could occur during
     real execution. The tool goes beyond the purpose of
     detecting deadlocks only: other infinite wait situations are
     also reported."
  title = "{T}owards a {S}oftware {A}rchitecture for {S}olid {M}odelling {S}ystems on {P}rocessor {N}etworks",
  author= "Davy, J. R. and Dew, Peter M. and Holliman, Nick and Mallon, D.P. and Pennington, Alan de",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "55--68",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "Our experience programming transputer-based systems for the
     visualisation of solid models has highlighted the need to
     separate the issues of program decomposition, task and data
     scheduling and low level communication. In this paper we
     propose a three level software architecture for
     multicomputer to support geometrical computations. The
     architecture takes into account current and emerging
     hardware to support communications and scheduling."
  title = "{A}n {I}rregular {D}istributed {S}imulation {P}roblem with a {D}ynamic {L}ogical {P}rocess {S}tructure",
  author= "Xu, Ming Q. and Turner, Stephen J. and Pin, Nie",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "69--79",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "This paper describes a modeling problem which exhibits many
     features of more advanced distributed simulation: the
     simulation of biological population dynamics —
     \"Host-parasite interactions\". It is a dynamical
     simulation in which certain species of hosts and parasites
     live, move randomly, breed and (as far as parasites are
     concerned) infect the hosts in a two-dimensional ocean.
     Apart from its relevance to realistic biological studies,
     this simulation program does serve to illustrate many
     crucial ideas in dynamic time and event driven simulations.
     Our approach to the parallel implementation of this
     simulation requires the simulation objects (in this case,
     hosts and parasites) to be organised as LPs (Logical
     Processes) which can be created and destroyed dynamically at
     run time to reflect the birth/death of these simulation
     objects. In addition to their dynamical features, LPs must
     preserve the temporal aspects of the real world system. In
     other words, a global ordering of LP interactions (referred
     to here as actions) must be ensured to preserve the
     causality principle [1]. Also, the computational load can
     become imbalanced because the real world system or rather,
     the distribution of hosts and parasites in the underlying
     space is changing with time. The methods for counteracting
     this dynamical load imbalance will be described.We shall
     begin with the specification of the dynamical rules
     governing the behaviour of the hosts and parasites during
     the simulation."
  title = "{A} {G}enerally {C}onfigurable {M}ultigrid {I}mplementation for {T}ransputer {N}etworks",
  author= "El-Giar, Osama and Hopkins, Tim",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "80--88",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "This paper describes the performance of a multigrid method
     implemented on a transputer-based architecture. We show that
     the combination of fast floating-point hardware, local
     memory and fast communication links between processors
     provide an excellent environment for the parallel
     implementation of multigrid algorithms. The gain in
     efficiency obtained by increasing the number of processors
     is shown to be nearly linear and comparisons are made with
     published figures for a parallel multigrid Poisson solver on
     an Intel iPSC 32-node hypercube."
  title = "{S}elf-{A}djusting {M}apping: {A} {H}euristic {M}apping {A}lgorithm for {M}apping {P}arallel {P}rograms onto {T}ransputer {N}etworks",
  author= "Shen, Hong",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "89--98",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "The problem of mapping parallel programs onto multiprocessor
     system is a fundmental problem of great significance in
     parallel processing, but it is NP-hard in general. In this
     paper we propose a fast heuristic algorithm to solve this
     problem on transputer networks. Our mapping algorithm
     consists of three modules: grouping, placement and routing,
     where grouping groups processes in the program into tasks
     which can be placed onto processors in the transputer
     network in a way of one-to-one, placement places the grouped
     tasks onto the processors and routing produces physical
     communication paths for logical communication requirements.
     The three modules work co-operatively in a way of
     progressive self-adjusting, and finally produce a
     satisfactory solution for the mapping problem."
  title = "{T}he {I}nvestigation of {C}ommunications {P}atterns in {O}ccam {P}rograms",
  author= "Candlin, Rosemary and Luo, Qiangyi and Skilling, Neil",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "99--108",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "The performance of a concurrent computation running on a
     multiprocessor system may depend critically on the way in
     which the program is decomposed and placed on the machine.
     In order to exploit the potential of parallel processors, it
     is necessary to balance the advantage of spreading the
     computational load as thinly as possible over the
     processors, with the disadvantage that increased
     communication delays may slow down the computation. In
     general, there is no satisfactory theoretical model of the
     complex interaction between the amount of computation
     carried out by the individual processes, their frequency of
     communication and the topology of the underlying machine.
     For many programs, it is not easy to see in advance how
     computation will interact with communication, and placement
     strategies which depend only on a static analysis of the
     program structure may not be sufficient. The work described
     here is an attempt to provide useful tools for the occam
     programmer which can be used to investigate communications
     patterns, and to explore different configurations rapidly.We
     think that this approach will be particularly valuable for
     programs which can be decomposed in a natural way into a
     fairly large number of top-level occam processes, so that
     the preliminary parallelization arises out of the nature of
     the application, and the main problem is to place these
     processes on a smaller number of physical processors. This
     is often the case for programs which model real-time
     systems, and we have taken as an example an application from
     chemical engineering. In programs like this, there is
     natural concurrency in the real world which can be easily
     represented in terms of occam processes. At the moment, we
     do not attempt to extract parallelism automatically, or
     handle shared data, though there are a number of systems
     that have tackled these problems (see, for example [1] and
     [2]). Our main aim at this stage is to provide a programmer
     with profiling tools, and see to what extent they can help
     to produce an efficient implementation of the program."
  title = "{A} {S}ystem {C}onfiguration for very large {D}atabase {P}roblems [{E}xtended {A}bstract]",
  author= "Chalmers, Alan G. and Paddon, Derek J.",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "109--112",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "In the past many applications have ensured success by
     restricting the size of the application, or by increasing
     the number of processors and memory size to enable the full
     database to be supported. Here, we specify that databases of
     arbitrary sizes should be supported and not be restricted by
     the memory size of individual processors.The ability to cope
     with very large databases was easily achieved in many of the
     early MIMD systems by using a shared memory model. However,
     the transputer and Occam process model restricts us from
     using this approach, instead we may share data [7].Unlike
     shared memory systems, we cannot globally address data in a
     message passing system. However, if data items carry unique
     identifiers, we can share single or multiple copies of those
     data items across many processors. Indeed, adopting this
     system of shared data reference allows us the same memory
     flexibility for read-only data, as would be obtained in a
     shared memory system, without the bus contention problems
     associated with that class of processor. In its degenerate
     form, a shared data system has only private data, which is
     never available at any other processor. The simple processor
     farm of May and Shepherd [8] is a typical example, where
     data and tasks are assigned to specific processors without
     the need for data to migrate to other processors. In many
     applications, such as the ray tracing of very complex
     computer images, a static allocation of data is
     inappropriate. Here, a database is managed at each node in a
     similare manner to a cache memory. Shared data systems for a
     tree based system architecture, and for very large data base
     problems are described by Green, Paddon and Lewis [7], and
     Green and Paddon [3, 4, 5, 6], where these systems were
     applied to image synthesis using the ray tracing method."
  title = "{A} {C}omparison of {P}arallel {I}mplementations of {F}lux {C}orrected {T}ransport {C}odes",
  author= "Jong, Jing-ming and Stiles, G. S.",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "113--128",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "We present the results of comparing implementations of the
     Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) method on transputers and
     several other parallel and sequential machines. FCT is a
     finite difference scheme used to solve fluid dynamics
     problem which may involve steep gradients or shocks; it has
     proven useful for both one- and two-dimensional problems in
     plasma physics, atmospheric sciences, and detonation
     studies. The method vectorizes very well and hence runs
     quickly on supercomputers. Since the calculations at each
     point involve only a small number of neighbors, the method
     can also be efficiently implemented on multi-processor
     systems. We have run one- and two-dimensional problems on
     Transputers and several other systems, including a VAX 8650,
     a SUN 4/280, a four-processor Ardent Titan, an
     eight-processor Alliant FX/8, and a four-processor Silicon
     Graphics 240GTX. We shall also compare our results to those
     obtained by Gustafson (1988) on the NCube/ten.If, in the 1-d
     problem, we consider the speed of a single T800 to be 1.0,
     the SUN 4/280 ranks at 3.8, the VAX 8650 at 4.0, 8 TSOOs at
     7.9, the Silicon Graphics 240GTX at 27.0, the FX/8 at 56.9,
     and the Titan at 64.4. On the 1-d problem, again taking one
     T800 to have a speed of 1.0, the SUN comes in at 3.6, 16
     NCube nodes at 4.0, the 8650 at 4.3, 8 TSOOs at 7.7, the
     Titan at 65.3, and the FX/8 at 101.4. The transputer ranks
     highest if we calculate the cost-effectiveness of the
     various systems by dividing the relative speed by the
     approximate cost. If we assume the 8 TSOOs have a
     cost-effectiveness of 1.0 on the 1-d problem, the Titan is
     second at 0.52, followed by the 240GTX at 0.17, the FX/8 at
     0.094, the SUN at 0.081, and the VAX at 0.021."
  title = "{S}imulating {N}eural {N}etworks in a {D}istributed environments",
  author= "Vanhala, Jukka and Kaski, Kimmo",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "129--141",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "Two artificial neural network models are compared. They are
     the Hopfleld neural network model and the Sparse Distributed
     Memory model. Distributed algorithms for both of them are
     designed and implemented. The run time characteristics of
     the algorithms are analyzed theoretically and tested in
     practise. The storage capacities of the networks are
     compared. Implementations are done using a distributed
     multiprocessor system."
  title = "{A}ttribute {E}valuation on a {N}etwork of {T}ransputers",
  author= "Kuiper, Matthijs F. and Dijkstra, Atze",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "142--149",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "The structure and construction of parallel compilers that
     run on a network of transputers is discussed. The compilers
     are automatically generated from an attribute grammar
     definition of the source language. This work illustrates
     that parallelism can also be used in non-numeric
     computations. As part of implementing parallel compilers we
     have constructed a general message passing kernel for
     transputers. This kernel can also be used in other
     applications. First results indicate that parallel compiling
     on transputers is feasible and that 4 to 16 transputers can
     be used in parallel compilers."
  title = "{A}n {O}bject {O}riented {S}tyle for the {C}omputing {S}urface",
  author= "Chalmers, Matthew",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "150--158",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "During the development of a ray tracer on a Meiko Computing
     Surface, problems with poor flexibility of configuration and
     slow software development were encountered. In order to
     overcome these difficulties, and in order to facilitate
     experimental programming on the Meiko, a system to support
     an object-oriented style for Occam' programming was
     developed. The aim was to create a set of library modules
     that would allow user code to be quickly developed and
     integrated into existing programs, to support better
     debugging facilities than were currently available, and to
     allow program design to be based on a more flexible and
     dynamic model of concurrency than the process modelThis
     system has been rewritten in order to introduce new features
     and to take advantage of the availability of C. The new
     system is described, with the emphasis on how experience
     with the system influenced its redesign, and on the details
     of newer elements such as the improved facilities for
     monitoring and debugging."
  title = "{C}\_{NET} {A} {C}++ {B}ased {L}anguage {F}or {D}istributed {A}nd {R}eal {T}ime {P}rogramming",
  author= "Adamo, Jean\_Marc",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "159--170",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "C\_NET is a high level C++ based language devoted to
     multiprocessor architecture programming. It has been
     designed so as to offer concepts of object-oriented
     programming, communicating processes and exception handling,
     all within the same language. The purpose of this paper is
     to describe how merging these concepts into C\_NET has been
     organized. Consequently, the paper is divided into three
     parts. The first is concerned with discussing the different
     roles that the notions of class object and process are
     intended to play within the language. It is argued that
     these roles are in fact orthogonal, since the first two
     notions are primarily concerned with data structuring,
     encapsulation and inheritance, whereas the last one is
     mainly concerned with threads of control and
     synchronization. The second part is devoted to describing
     the exception handling system, which makes it possible to
     derive process preemption mecanisms by combining exceptions
     with parallelism. Process preemption raises some atomicity
     problems, which are discussed at the end of the second part.
     Finally the last part provides information on the state of
     the project development and on future perspectives."
  title = "{R}eal-{T}ime {T}ransputer {M}odels of a {L}ow-{L}evel {P}rimate {V}ision",
  author= "Smith, Andrew B. and Welch, Peter H.",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "171--181",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "It is believed from psychophysical experiments that human
     vision operates in two stages: a parallel preattentive stage
     which extracts simple visual features and a sequential
     attentive stage in which local features of the scene are
     analysed. A processing model of the early preattentive stage
     has been developed. This model is computationly intensive
     making it unsuitable for implementation on sequential
     computer architectures. The development of a real-time
     parallel transputer vision system based on this processing
     model is explained.The current implementation performs edge
     filtering over four separate resolution/field-of-view levels
     from 256 by 256 monochrome images. Eight T800-20 transputers
     deliver over 40 frames per second. The software — hardware
     architecture is scalable so as to support higher resolutions
     and additional features (such as auto-focusing, movement
     detection, and tracking) through the addition of extra
     transputers, whilst maintaining at least camera frame rates."
@InProceedings{Wong F.S.Seng89,
  title = "{ICR}: {A} {T}ransputer-{B}ased {I}ntelligent {C}haracter {R}eader",
  author= "Wong F.S., Francis and Seng, Koh Liang",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "182--189",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "This paper presents the design of a transputer-based
     Intelligent Character Reader (ICR). The implementation of
     the ICR is based on two algorithms. The Filtered Projection
     Technique (FPT) is a modification of the conventional
     projection profile techniques - it filters out and projects
     the structural information of a visual pattern into several
     components along several directions, such that some salient
     structural information can be extracted from these
     components easily. The Structural Complexity Index (SCI)
     algorithm determines the structural complexity of a visual
     pattern and produces the corresponding index to indicate its
     relative complexity. The ICR is capable of recognizing
     printed characters, such as the Chinese characters printedon
     the local newspapers, accurately, despite the presence of
     noise due to printing, scanning, slight font variations and
     misalignment. The ICR prototype is implemented on Occam II
     and C, and run on an array of transputers."
  title = "{S}olving {P}artial {D}ifferential equations via {C}ellular {A}utomata: {A} {B}inary and {S}tatistical {A}pproach",
  author= "Cosnuau, A. and Desbois, F. and Morchoisne, Y.",
  editor= "Wexler, J.",
  pages = "190--195",
  booktitle= "{OUG}-11: {D}eveloping {T}ransputer {A}pplications",
  isbn= "90 5199 020 0",
  year= "1989",
  month= "sep",
  abstract= "Cellular automata are used to solve partial differential
     equations (PDE) discretized on a non-regular grid. Boolean
     representations of real numbers are introduced and logical
     intrinsic computer functions are used to achieve algebraic
     operations of the finite difference algorithm. In a first
     step the method is briefly explained and then implementation
     is described. For diffusion or convection problems,
     preliminary computations on a Cray-XMP18 and on a network of
     T800 Transputers were done."

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